2015-16 Attache Journal of International Affairs

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chiefs: Reid Dobell and Emily Tsui
Managing Editors: Zenaira Ali and Sarah Harrison
Senior Editors: Anthony Marchese, Alessandra Harkness, Joudy Sarraj, Carey Roach, Maria Monica Layarda, German Andres Guberman, Angel Ji
Senior Design Editors: Katharine Zisser and Jane Tien
Junior Editors: Joshua Rossetti, Graydon Kelch, Sanjana Shah, Asic Chen, Zoe Ritchie, Nadim Dabbous, Michael Switzer
First Year Representatives: Joshua Rossetti and Graydon Kelch

From Dynasty to Republic
Author: Timothy Law

Modern Chinese independence leaders utilized a hybridization of both domestic Chinese norms of self- strengthening and the introduction of Western political thought, especially norms of self-determination, in order to achieve greater independence from imperial powers. is is examined from its initial development in the mid-1800’s to its culmination in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. 

China Contra Mundum?
Author: Jeffrey Chen

China’s military rise has been puzzled over by multiple analytical camps, each of which hold different interpretations of the dimensions, threat-level, and validity of Chinese militarisation. This essay sets to put these interpretations within a larger historical framework. Instead of addressing the issue in a linear way, in which there is a set cast of characters, motivations, and rationale driving the situation forward, the essay advocates for an approach that divides Chinese militarisation into distinct phases. Four stages of Chinese militarisation are suggested: the 1980-2001 period of economic consolidation, in which the government had no ability nor incentive to assert territorial claims; the 2002- 2010 phase of decentralised command, in which Hu’s so power foreign policy con icted with unilateral PLA action; the 2010-2012 period in which internal leadership succession struggles sparked an unprecedented escalation of the Pacific disputes; and the 2013-Present phase, in which a oundering domestic economy and an unstable international situation have encouraged a newly-centralised CCP to bolster its legitimacy by using bellicose military action to rally popular nationalism. This approach thus characterises China’s military rise as a volatile force torn between pragmatic and nationalist concerns – a balance that, depending on the period, can tilt in either direction. 

Divergence in the Unwritten Alliance
Author: Filipe Carvalho

The United States and Brazil have historically enjoyed positive diplomatic relations in what has been defined as an unwritten alliance. However, throughout the past decade the two countries have gone through a period of unprecedented diversion brought forth by American macro-securitization of Latin America, reaching a critical point a er the 2013 Edward Snowden leaks and President Rousse ’s cancellation of a state visit to Washington. This essay seeks to account for the impact of America’s post-9/11 macro-securitization policy on United States-Brazil diplomatic relations. The study argues that American security policy has had negative effects on United States-Brazil bilateral relations, albeit Brazil’s own security-related divergent initiatives should also be accounted for in the aggravation of the two countries’ relations. The essay provides a background on United States- Brazil relations, an introduction on Barry Buzan’s and Ole Wæver’s theory of macro-securitization, and a discussion of United States-Brazil relations since 9/11, focusing on policy diversions in the context of macro-securitization theory. The paper concludes by discussing the impacts of such divergences on the future of U.S.-Brazil relations. 

Canada and Vietnam
Author: Anneliese Mills

This paper examines Canada’s role in Vietnam between 1954 and 1975 and explores the legitimacy of its claim to have been a neutral “helpful fixer.” Canada was at the centre of several diplomatic issues during this time, chiefly through its capacity as a member of the International Control Commission (ICC). This paper evaluates Canada’s involvement in Vietnam by exploring several factors, including Canada’s voting record on the ICC, the independent diplomatic missions of Blair Seaborn and Chester Ronning, Canada’s economic policy of selling military supplies to America, Canada’s immigration policy of accepting draft dodgers, and the ideological stance officials took in public speeches. Through the investigation of these issues, this paper argues that Canada was indeed a neutral “helpful fixer,” as the government asserted, and not an active supporter of the American war effort, as many historians have argued. Although Canada did at times demonstrate a slight bias in favour of an anti-communist agenda, this was both in reaction to – and an attempt to counteract – extreme communist biases present in the ICC, and a product of ongoing domestic concerns. Attending to these matters in as neutral a manner as possible is consistent with the characterization of a “helpful fixer.” 

The Evolution of Gender Based War-Crimes
Author: Madeline Torrie

Gender based war crimes, including rape, sexual slavery, and forced prostitution, have long been viewed by the international community as collateral symptoms of conflict. While there were some early efforts to enshrine provisions against gender based war crimes and international law, violators often received impunity. It was not until the establishment of ad hoc criminal tribunals after the atrocities of Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the advanced development of international criminal law, that there was significant pressure to prosecute perpetrators of gender based war crimes. However, while these two tribunals significantly advanced the prosecution of gender based war crimes, the International Criminal Court has faced a number of challenges in securing prosecutions for gender based war crimes. 

Indigenous Peoples and International Investment Law
Author: Sasha Boutilier

Indigenous peoples around the world increasingly interact with and are affected by transnational business. However, they predominantly remain excluded from the framing of international trade and investment law. In 2013, the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal ruled against Hupacasath First Nation which had sought an injunction against the Canada-China Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (CCFIPPA) on the grounds they had not been consulted. This paper critically examines this ruling to highlight the need for state policies to engage and consult Indigenous peoples on free trade agreements (FTAs) and international investment agreements (IIAs). By comparison to New Zealand’s Strategy for Engagement of Maori on International Treaties, it illustrates current inadequacies of environmental assessment on international treaties in Canada and suggests potential policy responses for Canada and other states. By reference to ongoing rati cation processes of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, it examines the potential of these policy responses and their significance in context of continuing uncertainty concerning the rights of Indigenous peoples under international investment law.

A Refugee Crisis in Flux
Authors: Silviu Kondan and Jelena Djuric

Through 2015, and in particular during the summer, a large number of asylum seekers surged across the “Eastern Mediterranean and Western Balkan route” in the hopes of finding asylum in Western Europe. Serbia’s position as a transit route between the Middle East and Western Europe has forced it to reconsider its asylum laws and policies. As a candidate for European Union (EU) accession, it has relied heavily relied on the international community’s support in its provision of humanitarian aid.This paper will utilize field research conducted in Serbia over the period from February 11 to 21, 2016 to examine Serbia’s particular role in the ongoing refugee crisis. It will contextualize interagency coordination between the United Nationals High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and various prominent non-governmental (NGOs) and international organizations, in facilitating the safe movement of people across its territory. The ‘domino effect,’ which that has forced states to respond to rapid policy changes elsewhere in the European and the Middle Eastern regions, has had an undeniably crucial effect on the capacity of the Serbian state to respond to the needs of refugees and migrants in times of crisis. As the situation remains unpredictable, it is vital to examine the contingency plans of organizations as they adapt to an increasingly chaotic environment. 


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